That is IT & Electronics for Civilization

The Web-log of an Engineer For The Digital Civilization :-)

Monday, 14 December 2015


            Programmable Logic devices such as Calculators ,CPU motherboards,counters        and many more other complex programmable logic devices are programmed using        in-system programming(ISP).
  • Realization of such large logic devices using connection wires can be very hectic job as they have more than 200 number of pins while each pin being very fragile and can bend easily.

  • It manually impossible to create such large devices and configure them hence COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN  (CAD) systems are employed for this purpose.After configuring the switches using CAD, the user has to prepare a programming unit which specifies the state of each programmable switch.
  • A computer which runs the CAD is connected to the programming unit.The programming file is transferred from computer into the CPLD through a cable
  • This cable is called as the J-TAG and is standardized by IEEE.
  • J-TAG stands for Joint Test Action Group


Monday, 5 October 2015

Contour Layout Calculations Using MS-Excel | HYONKOWS

         Contour project is one of the most important project in syllabus of Savitribai Phule Pune University. It requires a lot of calculation and its a very hectic work and requires hours of calculations after taking the readings. These calculations can be done within an hour using Microsoft Excel, all you need to do is make the table and then put formulas in the respective columns and then just type the values that are observed on site. Follow the steps that are mentioned below:

1) Get the readings:

The first step in any survey project, while performing this step be cautious and remember to take the smallest of details possible to make the project detailed and accurate. For this Preparing a custom observation sheet is better option than carry a field book which is difficult to manage on the observation scenario. Click here to download a custom observation page which you can print and fill in the readings on site using the theodolite. Fill in the accurate and required readings and then get on the computer to calculate the values required to plot the contour layout.

2) Calculate using Microsoft Excel:

Microsoft excel is a program developed by Microsoft and distributed under the package named as Microsoft Office. The software is widely used in industries for calculation purposes and other allied works. This software can ease a number of task for an instance consider the Tachometric Contour Project. In this project 2 theodolite are used which are separated by finite distance and readings are taken simultaneously. There are about 120 readings to be taken from a single theodolite which means total of 240 readings from both the instruments along with the vertical angles of each reading. Taking these readings is also a time consuming task but calculations in more annoying than that. There are a different values to be calculated like the horizontal distance, vertical distance, reduced level, staff intercept, etc. Calculating the previously mentioned values requires days when calculated manually by using excel it can be done within an hour. So finally once we have the readings we can proceed with the calculations using excel. Follow the steps that are mentioned below:

A. Start and Prepare the Environment for Calculations on Excel

Start Microsoft Excel and then prepare the table for calculations on excel. Include the columns of data that you have and columns of data that you want to calculate. After that prepare an excel sheet which is as according to the image below. You can include additional fields like the remarks, etc.

Fill in the formulas under the heads of columns as required: After preparing the table it is required to fill the formulas and then start feeding the values and calculating the required values. As the survey was carried out using 20” theodolite we get the angles with the accuracy up to 20” (seconds). So we need to calculate the values up to that precision. To calculate the values follow the steps:
i) Convert the Angle: The angle we get by observation on field is in Degree, Minute and Seconds like for example in the following format 10°28’40” but inserting these values in excel is a task which is not possible so it is better that we convert that angle in to value which can be utilised for further calculations like 10°28’40” can be converted to 10.478 using excel. For this I prefer creating a column which has the formula for converting minutes and seconds value to it corresponding degree value and then adding all the three for getting the converted vertical angle. Refer the image below

Now for excel to convert the minutes and seconds into its degree equivalent it is essential that we feed the degree minutes and seconds in separate cells as visible in the image above. You don’t need to pule the formula in every cell, instead once you feed the formula in one cell of a table it its taken as common formula for all the rows of the table if its not happening then you can use the over-write option from the drop down list. Once you’re done with this step you can proceed with the next step that is calculation of horizontal distance.

ii) Horizontal Distance/Component: in tachometric contour survey you don’t need to measure the distance using the tape or all you need is the value of top, bottom, axial and the horizontal angle of inclination. Using the formula you can easily calculate the horizontal distance between the staff station and the instrument. Use the formula mentioned the formula field of the image below

Use the formula as it is in the field a minor change can cause a great variation in your value.

iii) Vertical Component: This is the value that portrays the vertical displacement of the staff that is in up or down direction like for a place you’ll get the value as 4.655 and at a place you’ll get the value as 1.240 also note that when the vertical angle is changing the value of vertical component also changes the magnitude of vertical component depends upon the values of Top, Bottom, Axial and Vertical angle.

As visible in the formula the vertical component Is a sine function of the vertical angle and so if the angle Is 0° then you’ll get the value as 0 but this not possible. What I’ve observed is that when the vertical angle is zero the theodolite acts as an Autolevel and its axial reading should be the staff reading so for that purpose I’ve added another field as V.LEVEL in which I’ve used the IF function of excel which takes the value of axial reading as the vertical component when the angle is zero else it gives the same value as of its preceding cell.

Use the IF function of excel for calculating the correct level of the station.
iv) Reduced Levels: The main objective of almost all the survey projects is to calculate the RL of stations with respect to some benchmark. This can even done on excel. While calculating the RL on excel I personally prefer the HI (Height of Instrument) Method as it reduces the effort of typing formulas and you can just drag the cell down to copy the values making it an easy task.

Now leaving the 1st cell and inserting the formula to the next cell makes it complete. All you need to do is type the RL of benchmark in the 1st cell and type the HI by adding the RL and V.Level Value in the HI Column, drag the HI cell to below so that you can copy the value of the HI at benchmark for calculation of HI at staff stations.
You can use the conditional formatting to compare values and find out highest and lowest RL and also use formatting for identification of cells to avoid confusion.
Finally you have all the values required to plot the contour layout. Saving a lot of time and efforts and over-all is the accuracy of results as manual error is negligible in this procedure as compared to the manual calculations.
You can download the template used as example by click this link and also download a complete example with readings filled by clicking here. Please note that these files were created using Microsoft Office2013.

Visit our YouTube channel for video on how to plot the contour map on AutoCAD


Sunday, 27 September 2015


In this post we would like to come with a topic which is little different from your books but as important than that. COMMUNICATION SKILLS, this in one of the topic which the students ignore and face problems at the time of interviews.

The very first thing is that you should know that why are u special from rest. What qualities do you have that a company should select you. For example if you are a good speaker so your this skill can be used in seminars or handling the clients and many more thus attracting people as well as employers.

The time u get to know about your specialIty you take the first step towards your success.

Going further the next important thing comes to write a application letter for any job u want to apply.

Your letter should detail your specific qualifications for the position and the skills you would bring to the employer.
What to Include in Your Letter

As with all cover letters, the body of this job application letter is divided into three sections: the introduction, which details why the applicant is writing; the body, which discusses relevant qualifications; and the closing, which thanks the reader and provides contact information and follow-up details.

for example suppose you are writing a letter to xyz company for a xyz job

Ravi chowdhari
Marol maroshi road
Andheri East,

Mumbai 59.

Date : 29th JANUARY 2015

George Gilhooley,
XYZ Company.
87 Delaware Road.
Mumbai 29.

Dear Mr. Gilhooley,

I am writing to apply for the programmer position advertised in the Times Union. As requested, I am enclosing a completed job application, my certification, my resume, and three references.

The opportunity presented in this listing is very interesting, and I believe that my strong technical experience and education will make me a very competitive candidate for this position. The key strengths that I possess for success in this position include:

·         I have successfully designed, developed, and supported live use     applications

·         I strive for continued excellence

·         I provide exceptional contributions to customer service for all customers

With a BSc. degree in Computer Programming, I have a full understanding of the full life cycle of a software development project. I also have experience in learning and excelling at new technologies as needed.

Please see my resume for additional information on my experience.

I can be reached any time via email at or my cell phone, 909-555-5555.

Thank you for your time and consideration. I look forward to speaking with you about this employment opportunity.


Signature (for hard copy letter)

Ravi Chowdhari

This is the format of how to write a job application letter.
In the further posts I would like to explain how to make your resume more attractive than others and many more which will be used at the time of interviews.

so keep visiting Hyonkows.

Trust us, believe  us and BE SURE WITH HYONKOWS


Wednesday, 9 September 2015

Android as a Walkie Talky | Wifi and Bluetooth

      In our previous post  Bluetooth Talkie  we'd mentioned how an android device could be used as a Walkie Talky for a short range. Now taking the same concept to level 2 wherein Wifi can be used.
There are a lot of android Apps that serve the same purpose but based on my experience I'd really like to recommend  Android Intercom  . The app provides a PTT (Push To Talk) interface that allows you to connect through wifi or portable hot-spot, a number of devices can be connected and Could be used simultaneously.

My Experience
       As being an engineering student there are many projects in different subjects one of such was the contour Layout Project where we had to measure the RLs (reduced levels)  of a landform using a 20" Theodolite. There were about 120 readings to be taken at different angles and with horizontal distances varying between 2 to 30 meter. At such times the coordinating teammates becomes a difficult task as the distance increases. You need to shout so that the person standing with the level staff receives your instructions but lucky we had the app Bluetooth Talkie and we used it a lot and our project was completed with ease. The minor adjustment in the position of the level staff were so easily coordinated with very less effort like no shouting and all just soft voice as if the person's standing next to you.

Benefits of Android Intercom
  •  Multiple Connectivity 
     Many devices can be connected at a same time
  • Duplex network 
   Unlike the bluetooth Talkie you can speak as if you're using a normal telephone though its a bit slow in transmission
  •  Range
    Being based on wifi the devices that are connected display the strength of signal unlike the bluetooth Talkie where you are disconnected without any information.

    This app though has many features but it drains your battery at a faster rate when connected using wifi.

Where can it be Used?
1) Construction Sites where range of work is not more than 30 meter
2) Backstage Co-ordination : To coordinate between the events
3) By students : During Survey Project it becomes extremely essential else you'll surely need to shout.
        ..... And many more applications

Jazak Allahu Khayran

  Visit our Downloads page to find more documents/drawings/presentations and much more..

Monday, 17 August 2015

Statistical Calculations | Regression Mode Casio fx-991MS


  • The calculator Casio fx-991MS having too many facilities that can aid students in hard times. For the particular instance, the regression mode.
  • Many a times in many syllabus Statistics is included which is very scoring and easy but the problem is it consumes a lot of time and if not proceeded cautiously a single mistake makes the entire solution wrong.

Consider the example of the following data table.

x 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 17 19 23
y 2 4 6 8 10 17 51 62 7 15
here we’re asked to compute mean, variance, standard deviation, cov(x,y), and co-efficient of co-variance ‘r’.
     The conventional method that is used by the students all across is to draw a table and then calculate various values like
clip_image002[11] clip_image004 clip_image006 clip_image008 clip_image010
And for the current example a table as follows is made
n x y x2 y2 xy
1 1 2      
2 3 4      
3 5 6      
4 7 8      
5 9 10      
6 11 17      
7 13 51      
8 17 62      
9 19 7      
10 23 15      
and then the values under the headings are calculated as per the formula. Then all the values are added.

All of this makes it too much of a heavy task.

  • Short-Cut

Using the calculator the desired quantity can be calculated within one or two steps
Follow the procedure as follows

  1. : Turn on the calculator
  2. : Get into the regression mode by pressing 2
  3. : Select the linear mode by pressing 1
  4. : Congratulations! You’re now in the regression mode
  5. : Feed the values of x and y by pressing the values and separating them ',' (comma) and then press the M+ button to save the value in the calculator.
  6. Save all the values using the above steps, and when you're done press AC button.
  7. Now to calculate the mean of x press “ Shift” then press “2” and then press “1”.
  8. Now to calculate the mean of y press “ Shift” then press “2” then press “right navigation” and then press “1”.
  9. Now to calculate variance of x press “ Shift” then press “2” and then press “2”.
  10. Now to calculate variance of x press “ Shift” then press “2” then press “right navigation” and then press “2”.
  11. Now to calculate the co-relation coefficient ‘r’ press “ Shift” then press “2” then press “right navigation” then press “right navigation” and then press “3”.

Thus saving a lot of time and labour with optimum accuracy….


A video demonstrating the above steps in detail will be posted in some days…


Sunday, 26 July 2015

Number systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.
The study of number system will give us an insight into how a computer manipulates and stores numbers.It is not only used in computers but also in various electronic devices.

1.  The Decimal number system.

  • The number system with which we are the most familiar with ,that which we have been taught in school is the decimal system.
  • The largest value of a digit in this system is 9.
  • Each digit represents a different multiple of 10.These multiples are also called as weighted values.
  • The leftmost digit is called as the MSB(most significant bit ).
  • The rightmost digit is called as the LSB(least significant bit).  

2. Binary number system

  • Any electronic device does not operate on Decimal number system and hencethe binary number system has gained importance specially in the electronics and computer systems.
  • A binary uses only two digits '0' & '1' respectively.
  • The binary digits(0 & 1)are also known as bits.Thus binary system is a two bit system.

  • Above is an example how to interpret a binary number in terms of our basic decimal nos.

3.Octal Number System

  • In order to represent large numbers in the binary format we will need huge strings of 0's and 1's.
  • The octal system can be used for reducing the size of the large binary number.
  • Each digit in the octal system will assume 8 different values from 0 to 7. 

4.Hexadecimal Number System

  • When dealing with large values, binary numbers become too unwidely.
  • The numbers are from 0 to F in which 0 to 9 represents the number as it is.
  • After 9 ,10 is represented A,11 by B and so on till 15 by F. 
  • The largest value of a digit in the hexadecimal number higher than F will be 10.
  • The largest two digit hexadecimal number is FF which corresponds to 255 in decimal system.

NOTE  :  Each number system can be converted from one form to other.The method for converting every number system to binary and vice versa is explained in the video.


Thursday, 23 July 2015

Lathe Machine | Autocad Drawing

To download the autocad drawing Click Here

The drawing is in Autocad 2012 format.

       Autocad is must for engineers and there's no engineer who hasn't seen a Lathe Machine.
The Lathe Machine is the oldest and most versatile machine tool used since ages in the manufacturing and processing industry. It is many times referred to as Mother of all machines. Its an extremely important machine tool in the industry, though there are automated method used for manufacturing processes yet one cannot deny the fact that Lathe Machine still remains efficient and useful in its own way. A number of processes can be carried out on the Lathe Machine like turning, parting, knurling, boring, etc..  The machine is available in different designs based on different applications and requirement of the material.

        Now leaving the Lathe Machine aside and now focusing on Autocad, basically we can say that they days of pen and pencil are over, it's the electronic age! Now there are only a few people who draft by manual means investing a lot of labour. Today the means have changed computerised drawings are preffered more than manual drawings for many reasons. Some of them are accuracy, ease of drafting, clean and good appearance, easy to edit and modify, etc.. Such features make it the need of hour for one to learn Autocad. For the same purpose we've uploaded an Autocad Drawing of Lathe Machine. Lathe Machine being a complex structure provides a great experience of CAD.

To download the autocad drawing Click Here

The drawing is in Autocad 2012 format.

Wednesday, 24 June 2015

FYJC Online Admission Procedure (Pune)

FYJC Online Admission Procedure (Pune)

     The admission procedure for std, 11th and 12th has became online in these recent days. Because of this change many people are facing problems on how to take admission in Junior college, As to counter this problem we, Hyonkows have hereby presented a video tutorial. The audio is is in Hindi Language and captions/subtitles are in English.

After having a view to the video you'll get a basic idea on how and what the actual procedure is..

Many times its a question from where do we get the login ID and password or how do we apply for the online admission procedure, the video explains these steps within 2 minutes.

Actually the government has made this procedure more easy and comfortable, unlike old times you don't need to stand in long ques spend money buying forms from different colleges. Its just one form and you get admitted in the next stage for your academics.

The basic steps are

1) Get the Application Manual: You'll get that from the school/institute from which you qualified your SSC

2) Log on and fill the form:  Once you have the ID and password application is not a big deal. Just log on the the website mentioned in the video and follow the instructions. Please remember to mention the caste (OBC/SC/NT/ST) to avail quota facilities. Also different minority quota provisions are available in various colleges for Gujarati and other  minorities, so be sure while filling these fields.

3) Selection of Colleges : After filling the application form with your details and marks, now the next step is to select the college. The application manual that you get is details of many colleges. All you need to do is fill the college code in the option form. Please be cautious while filling.

4) Pay the fees and finalize the admission: After filling the form now just be patient and wait for the allotment list to be displayed. Here you'll be allotted a college based on your marks and quota.

We're extremely sorry that we couldn't provide the steps 3 and 4 in the video.
Hope you get the admission process correct and please subscribe our channel for more details.

For any questions please let us know by your comments...
"Your Feedback Is Valuable For Us"
 Jazak Allah Khair


Saturday, 25 April 2015

Our Objective

We've created this blog with an objective of sharing documents and knowledge that we students or in General the student community essentially needs.
We shall be sharing our own creation like presentation, notes, videos, etc.


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